Amnesia is a rare condition where an individual finds it hard to remember the past, memorize new information, and imagine the future because people imagine future scenarios on the basis of recollections of past experiences. The ability to recollect experiences and events is based on a variety of complex brain processes.
The individual with amnesia can experience problems in learning new information, they find struggle to recall memories of past events or both.
Types of amnesia –
There are different types of amnesia. The most common types are:
- Anterograde amnesia: The individual cannot able to remember new information. Things that happened very recently and information which is stored in short term memory gets disappear. The individual may be remembering those events which happened before the injury.
- Retrograde amnesia: The individual cannot remember those events that occurred before the trauma, but what happened after the trauma they remember everything. But in rare cases, both retrograde and anterograde amnesia can occur.
- Transient global amnesia: In this, a loss of memory for a shorter span of time or can say the temporary loss of all memory in severe cases. These are a rare type of amnesia.
- Traumatic amnesia: It happens when an individual loses their memory because of an accident. The individual can experience a brief loss of consciousness or a coma. It is usually temporary but depends on severity.
- Wernicke-Korsakoff’s psychosis: Excessive use of alcohol can lead to neurological problems, which results in progressive memory loss.
- Childhood amnesia (infantile amnesia): The individual is not able to recall memories or events from early childhood because of memory areas of the brain are not fully developed during childhood.
- Hysterical (fugue or dissociative) amnesia: The individual forgets their past and also their identity. The ability to remember can returns slowly and suddenly in a few days or may not be.
- Source amnesia: The individual can remember certain information but not know their source.
- Prosopamnesia: In this type of amnesia the person doesn’t remember the faces.
- Posthypnotic amnesia: The individual cannot be able to recall the events which happen during hypnosis, brain tumor o
Any type of injury which can interfere with memory and affect the brain can lead to damage memory function. Damage of brain parts like thalamus and hippocampus can lead to amnesia. Brain tumor present can relates
- Brain injury or damage can result in Amnesia. The cause may be Stroke, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, or bleeding in the area between the skull and the brain, brain tumor which interferes with memory, oxygen deprivation, and Head injuries, etc.
Psychological amnesia is known as dissociative amnesia. It caused by emotional trauma or shocks-like sexual abuse, natural disaster, violent crime, and severe psychological stress.